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APA Citation Guide

Why cite?

The purpose of citing sources is to give credit to the author for any ideas or quotations that you use and to enable your reader to locate the sources.

How to cite?

The best time to document sources is when you are actually using them. It can be very difficult to go back at a later date to relocate your sources.

Step 1 Decide what type of resource you are using: a book? A website? A magazine? An interview?

Step 2 Find the example in this brochure, or if it is not listed, look it up in one of the sources listed below.

Step 3 Write your citation, following the appropriate examples. Use the proper punctuation. Your source might not have all the parts listed in the guidelines and examples.

Suggested Resources

The APA Manual was written specifically for formatting articles for publication. Students should consult their instructor on specific requirements for a particular class. The 2009 6th edition of the manual is available in the library.

Common types of sources are listed in this brochure. For examples of other types of sources refer to the manual. Citation examples can be found on the web via the Purdue Online Writing Lab.

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General Rules

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Print Resources

Book by a single author

Author's name (Last name, Initial). (Year of publication). Title of book (Edition if appropriate). Place of
         publication: Publisher. If there is no author, begin with the title and alphabetize by the first
         significant word in the title.

Knott, J. (2009). Navigating the healthcare maze: What you need to know. Sanford, FL: DC Press.

Maslow, A. (1987). Motivation and personality (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Addison.

Book by two or more authors

First author's name (Last name, Initial), & additional author's name(s) (Last name, Initial). (Year of
         publication). Title of book (Edition if appropriate). Place of publication: Publisher.

Baker, A. & Charvat, B. (2008). Research methods in child welfare. New York, NY: Columbia
         University Press.

Book by a corporate author

Corporate author. (Year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.

World Health Organization. (2008). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: The MPOWER
. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Books with editors

Editor's name (Last name, Initial), additional editor's name(s) (if any) (Last name, Initial), (Ed(s)). (Year).
         Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Snyder, C. L. (Ed.). (2006). Euthanasia. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven.

Government publications

If no author is listed, treat the government agency as the author. Give name of the government first,
         followed by the name of the agency. (Year). Title of publication. Place of publication: Publisher.

Olmsted County Public Health Services. (2008). 2008 Olmsted County community health needs
. Rochester, MN: Olmsted County Public Health Services.

Chapter or section of a book

Author of selection (Last name, Initial). (Year). Title of selection. In Editor's name (Ed.), Title of anthology
         (Vol. #, pp.). Place of publication: Publisher.

Vorse, M. H. (1995). The war in Passaic. In E. Mills (Ed.), Journalistas: 100 years of the best writing and
         reporting by women journalists
(pp. 106-109). New York, NY: Carroll.

Work in an anthology

Tomc, S. (1997). An idle industry: Nathaniel Parker Willis and the workings of literary leisure. American
         Quarterly, 49
(4), 780-805. In K.D. Darrow & R. Whitaker (Eds.), Nineteenth-Century Literature
(Vol. 194), pp. 313-326.Detroit, MI: Gale.

Encyclopedia or dictionary

Author of the entry (if any) (Last name, Initial). (Year). Entry heading. In Editor's name (Ed.), Title of the
         encyclopedia or dictionary
. (Edition number if any) (Vol. no. pp.). Place of publication: Publisher.

Pasternak, G. (2009). Codeine. In H.R. Kranzler and P. Korsmeyer (Eds.), Encyclopedia of drugs,
         alcohol & addictive behavior
(3rd ed.) (Vol. 1, p. 331). Detroit, MI: MacMillan-Gale.

Flash. (2006). In T. Dalzell and T. Victor (Eds.), The new Partridge dictionary of slang and
         unconventional English
(Vol. 1, p. 761, def. 4). London, England: Routledge.

Multivolume work

Author or editor (Last name, Initial), followed by Ed. (If appropriate). (Year). Title of work. (Volumes).
         (If only one volume is being cited, state the number of the volume and give publication information
         for that volume alone.) Place of publication: Publisher.

French, M. (2008). From eve to dawn: A history of women. (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Feminist.

Article in a magazine

Author (Last name, Initial). (Year, Day). Title of article. Title of magazine,Volume, page numbers.

Lithwick, D. (2009, July 20). Sotomayor in 60 seconds: a guide to the confirmation hearings. Newsweek,

Apple releases Snow Leopard details. (2009, August). Macworld,26,14-15.

Article in a scholarly journal

Author(s) (Last name, Initial). (Year). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number (issue number if
         ea. issue starts with pg. 1), page number(s).

Schram, S.F., Soss, J., Fording, R.C., & Houser, L. (2009). Deciding to discipline: Race, choice, and
         punishment at the frontlines of welfare reform. American Sociological Review, 74, 398-422.

Article in a daily newspaper

Author (if available). (Date). Title of article. Title of newspaper, page number(s) (use p. or pp.)

Bowley, G & Anderson, J. (2009, July 13). For Goldman, a swift return to big profits. New York
pp. A1, A3

Review of a film

Reviewer's name (Last name, Initial). (Date). Title of review (if available). [Review of Title of film reviewed,
         other information]. Title of newspaper or magazine, volume (issue), page number(s).

Jacobson, A. (2008, September/October) Made in L.A. [Review of the film Made in L.A., directed by
         Almudena Cabracedo]. Video Librarian, 23 (5), 52.

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Web Resources

Article from an online journal

Cite as you would a printed source and include a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) when available (if not shown,
         try crossref.org to find). If no DOI, use the URL of the journal home page or the exact URL if the
         content is widely accessible.

Crandall, H. & Busselle, R. (2009). A quantitative research methods introductory exercise. Communication
         Teacher, 23
(3), 121-125. doi:10.1080/17404620902974816

Online article databases

Cite as you would a printed source, followed by one of the following:

  a)  Retrieved from Title of database. Listing this database is optional, especially if your readers
      would be unlikely to have easy access to the database, OR

  b)  Digital Object Identifier, OR

  c)  URL of the Journal home page.

Refer to the "General Rules" section of this brochure for more information. Your instructor can tell you which is the preferred method.

Bowes, S., Lowes, L., Warner, J., & Gregory, J.(2009). Chronic sorrow in parents of children with type 1
         diabetes. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65, 992-1000. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.04963.x

Tomc, S. (1997). An idle industry: Nathaniel Parker Willis and the workings of literary leisure. American
         Quarterly, 49,
780-805. In K. D. Darrow & R. Whitaker (Eds.), Nineteenth-Century Literature
         Criticism (Vol. 194),
pp. 313-326. Detroit, MI: Gale. Retrieved from Literature Resource Center

Web site

Name of the author (Last name, Initial). (Date). Title of the page (if part of a larger Web site). In Title of
         the overall Web site
. Retrieved from URL

National Audubon Society. (2009).State of the Birds. Retrieved from http://stateofthebirds.audubon.org

Doe, J. (n.d.) John Doe's Home Page. Retrieved from http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~mctam/

Online magazine

Follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include volume number (issue number) if available.
         Retrieved from URL

Daly, L. (2009, August 4). The case for paid family leave. Newsweek. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com

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Other Resources

eBook - electronic book

Shalat, A. (2008). How to do everything with online video. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Personal interview conducted by researcher

Personal communication is not included in the reference list. Only within the text of the paper:

(J. Barker, personal communication, January 7, 2000).

Film or video recording

Producer, Director. (Date). Title [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Sommers, S. (Producer) & Smith J. (Director). (1999). The mummy [Motion picture]. United States: Universal.

Sound recording

Composer, Conductor, or Performer (depending on the desired emphasis). (Copyright Date). Title of song
         (if applicable). On Title of recording. [Medium of recording.] Location: Label. (Date of recording if

Clash. (1999). Brand new Cadillac. On London calling [CD]. New York: Epic.

King, C. (1971).Tapestry [cassette]. New York: Ode. (1999).

Television or radio program

Writer, Director, Producer. (Date of publication). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In Name of
         Producer, if available (Producer) Series title. City: Studio.

Blecker, A. (Producer). (January 7, 2000). Bratwurst [Television series episode]. In Hot off the grill with
         Bobby Flay
. New York, NY: Food Network.

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A print copy of this information in brochure format is available in the library.

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Last updated: March 12, 2014