Principles for a Lifetime



Steven A. Beebe, Susan J. Beebe,

and Diana K. Ivy


Prepared by Stephen Hunt, Illinois State University




Chapter 1

Foundations of Human Communication






Communication Defined

     Human communication is the process of making sense out of the world and sharing that sense with others through verbal and nonverbal messages.



Effective Communication

1. The message should be understood.

2. The message should achieve its intended effect.

3. The message should be ethical.



Effective Communication-Ethics

     Ethics are the beliefs, values, and moral principles by which we determine what is right or wrong.



Why Study Communication?

–    To improve your employability

–    To improve your relationships

–    To improve your physical and emotional health


Communication Models

Human Communication as Action



Communication Models

·        Human Communication as Action

–   Information source

–   Receiver

–   Message

–   Channel

–   Noise

·        Human Communication as Interaction

–   Feedback

–   Context


·        Human Communication as Transaction

–   Simultaneously interactive

–   Meaning is based on mutual, concurrent sharing of ideas and feelings

–   This model most accurately describes human communication


Communication Characteristics

–    Communication is inescapable

–    Communication is irreversible

–    Communication is complicated

–    Communication emphasizes content and relationships

–    Communication is governed by rules


Communication Principles for a Lifetime

–    Be Aware of Your Communication with Yourself and Others

–    Effectively Use and Understand Verbal Messages

–    Effectively Use and Understand Nonverbal Messages

–    Listen and Respond Thoughtfully to Others

–    Appropriately Adapt Messages to Others

–    Effectively Use and Interpret Verbal Symbols

–   Effective communicators use appropriate symbols

–   Effective communicators accurately encode and decode messages


–    Communication Principles for a Lifetime

–    Be Aware of Your Communication with Yourself and Others

–   Effective communicators are present when communicating

–   Effective communicators are aware of the choices they make when communicating



Communication Principles for a Lifetime


Effectively Use and Interpret Nonverbal Symbols

–   Nonverbal messages are the primary way we communicate feelings and attitudes

–   Nonverbal messages are more believable than verbal messages

–   Effective communicators are skilled in interpreting nonverbal messages of others


Communication Principles for a Lifetime


Listen and Respond Thoughtfully to Others

–   Listening can be hard because it looks easy

–   Effective communicators develop sensitivity to others

–   Being other-oriented means considering the needs, motives, desires, and goals of others


Communication Principles for a Lifetime


Appropriately Adapt Messages to Others

–   Adapt your response to your listeners

–   Adapt the structure or organization of what you say

–   Adapt the general style of your message


Communicating with Others: Interpersonal Communication

     Interpersonal communication occurs when we interact simultaneously with another person and attempt to mutually influence each other.



Communicating with Others: Group and Team Communication


     Groups have goals, their members feel they belong to the group, and the group members influence others in the group.

–   small group communication

–   dyad

–   teams


Communicating with Others: Public Communication


     Public communication occurs when a speaker address a gathering of other people to inform, persuade, or entertain.



Chapter 2

Self-Awareness and Communication


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon




Communication Principles

Self-Concept: Who Are You?

Self-Concept Components

–    Attitude--a learned predisposition to respond to a person, object, or idea in a favorable or unfavorable way.

–    Beliefs--the way in which you structure your understanding of reality (true/false).

–    Values--enduring concepts of good and bad, right and wrong.

One or Many Selves?

–    The Material Self

–    The Social Self

–    The Spiritual Self

The Material Self

The material self is a total of all the tangible things you own:

–   your body

–   your possessions

–   your home

The Social Self

The social self is that part of you that interacts with others:

–   You change based on interaction with others.

–   Each relationship you have with another person is unique.

The Spiritual Self

Your spiritual self consists of all your internal thoughts and introspections abut your values and moral standards:

–   It is the essence of who you think you are.

–   It is a mixture of your spiritual beliefs and your sense of who you are in relationship to other forces in the universe.

How the Self-Concept Develops

–    Our communication with other individuals

–    Our association with groups

–    Roles we assume

–    Our self-labels

Self-Concept: Communication With Others

–    We don’t come to know and understand ourselves in a vacuum.

–    Charles Horton Cooley first advanced the notion of the figurative looking glass.

–    Self-concept development begins at birth.

Self-Concept:Association With Groups

–    Our awareness of who we are is often linked to who we associate with:

–   religious groups

–   political groups

–   ethnic groups

–   social groups

–    Peer pressure is a powerful force in shaping attitudes and behavior.

Self-Concept:Assumed Roles

–    Your self-concept likely reflects the roles you assume:

–   mother               

–   brother

–   teacher

–   student

–    Gender asserts a powerful influence on the self-concept from birth on.


–    Self-concept is affected by others but we are not blank slates.

–    Self-reflexiveness is the human ability to think about what we’re doing while we’re doing it.

–    Through self-observation we discover strengths which encourage us to assume new labels.

Self-Esteem:What Is Your Value?

–    While self-concept refers to your description of who you are, self-esteem refers to your evaluation of who you are.

–    Your self-esteem can fluctuate and rise or fall within the course of a day.

Self-Esteem: Gender Differences

–    In patriarchal cultures, women and girls suffer loss of self-esteem to a greater degree than men and boys.

–   Boys often feel better able to do things than girls.

–   Differential reinforcement (athletics)

Self-Esteem: Social Comparisons

–    We become more aware of ourselves by measuring ourselves against others, a process called social comparison.

–    It can be self-defeating to take social comparisons too far, to cause your self-esteem to suffer because you compare yourself unrealistically to others.

Self-Esteem: Self-Expectations

–    Self-expectations are those goals we set for ourselves.

–    Self-esteem is affected when you evaluate how well you measure up to your own expectations.

–    Be weary of placing unrealistic demands on yourself.

Self-Esteem: Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

–    The self-fulfilling prophecy refers to the idea that what you believe about yourself often comes true because you expect it to come true.

–    Your level of self-esteem affects the kinds of prophecies you make about yourself and colors your interpretation of events.

Communication and the Enhancement of Self-Esteem

–    Our feelings of low self-worth may contribute to  many of our societal problems:

–   choosing the wrong partners

–   becoming addicted to drugs, alcohol, or sex

–   experiencing problems with eating

–    Communication is essential in the process of building and maintaining self-esteem.

Communication and Self: Engage in Positive Self-Talk

–    Intrapersonal communication involves communication within yourself--self-talk.

–    Your self-concept and self-esteem influence the way you talk to yourself.

–    Your inner dialogue also has an impact on your self-concept and self-esteem.

–    Self-talk is related to the building and maintaining of one’s self-concept.

Communication and Self:Visualize

–    Visualization involves “seeing” yourself exhibiting some desirable behavior.

–    Apprehensive public speakers can manage their fears by visualizing positive results:

–   reduces negative self-talk

–   enhances confidence and speaking skill

Communication and Self: Develop Honest Relationships

–    Have at least one other person that will give you honest, objective feedback.

Communication and Self: Surround Yourself with Positive People

–    Surround yourself with people who have higher levels of self-esteem.

–    Don’t engage in pity parties.

–    Immunize yourself from negativity.

Communication and Self: Loose Your Baggage

–    Avoid constantly reliving negative experiences.

–    Let go of past experiences that cause your present self-esteem to suffer.

The Perception Process


–    Stage One: Attention and Selection


–    Stage Two: Organization


–    Stage Three: Interpretation

Communication and the Enhancement of Perceptual Accuracy

–    Increase Your Awareness

–    Avoid Stereotypes

–    Check Your Perceptions

–   indirect perception checking

–   direct perception checking


Chapter 3

Understanding Verbal Messages


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon



Communication Principles

Understanding Verbal Messages

–    Why Focus on Language?

–    The Nature of Language

–    The Power of Words

–    Confronting Bias in Language

–    Using Words to Establish Supportive Relationships

Why Focus on Language?

–    Words are powerful.

–    You choose language.



The Nature of Language

–    A language is a system of symbols (words or vocabulary) structured by grammar (rules and standards) and syntax (patterns in the arrangement of words) common to a community of people.

–    Words dictate and limit the nature of our reality.



Words Are Symbols With Meanings

–    The meaning of a word is how a person interprets or makes sense of a symbol.

–    Bypassing occurs when the speaker’s and the receiver’s meanings do not correspond.


Denotative and Connotative Meaning

–    The denotative level of language conveys content.

–    The connotative level of language conveys feelings.

Words Reflect Concrete and Abstract Meanings

–    A word is concrete if we can see it, touch it, smell it, taste it, or hear it.

–    If we cannot, the word is abstract.

–    Concrete messages are more clear, abstract terms are more difficult to understand or agree upon.


Words Are Culture-Bound

–    Culture consists of the rules, norms, and values of a group of people that have been learned and shape from one generation to the next.

–    The meaning of words can change from culture to culture.


Words Are Context-Bound

–    Symbols derive their meaning from the situation in which they are used.


The Power of Words

–    Words have the power to create and label experience.

–    Words have the power to impact thoughts and actions.

–    Words have the power to shape and reflect culture.

–    Words have the power to make and break relationships.

Confronting Bias in Language

–    Words that reflect bias toward other cultures can create barriers for listeners.

–    Political correctness involves the use of language that does not exclude or offend listeners.

Biased Language: Race, Ethnicity, and Religion

–    Allness occurs when words reflect unqualified, often untrue generalizations that deny individual differences or variations.

–    Keep abreast of linguistic changes and adopt the designations currently preferred by members of the ethnic groups themselves.

Biased Language: Gender and Sexual Orientation

–    Sexist language reveals bias in favor of one sex against another.

–   The use of a masculine term as though it were generic.

–   To avoid sexist language, use either she or he, he/she, or s/he.

–    Homophobic language reveals insensitivity or intolerance toward persons who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual.


Biased Language: Age, Class, and Ability

–    Inventory your language for terms that are disrespectful to elders or patronizing to younger persons.

–    Monitor references to socioeconomic differences (e.g., blue- and white-collar workers).

–    Avoid drawing attention to a person’s physical, mental, or learning ability.

Using Words to Establish Supportive Relationships

–    Trigger words are forms of language that arouse certain emotions.

–    Verbal behaviors can contribute to feelings of either supportiveness or defensiveness.


Using Words to Establish Supportive Relationships

•      Describe Your Own Feelings Rather Than Evaluate Others

•      Solve Problems Rather Than Control Others

•      Be Genuine Rather Than Manipulative

•      Empathize Rather Than Remain Detached From Others

•      Be Flexible Rather Than Rigid Toward Others

•      Present Yourself as Equal Rather Than Superior


Chapter 4

Understanding Nonverbal Messages


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon




Communication Principles

Understanding Nonverbal Messages

–    Why Focus on Nonverbal Communication?

–    The Nature of Nonverbal Communication

–    Codes of Nonverbal Communication

–    How to Interpret Nonverbal Cues More Accurately

Nonverbal Communication Defined

     Communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for someone

–   sign language is one exception to this definition

Why Focus on Nonverbal Communication?

–    Nonverbal Messages Communicate Feelings and Attitudes

–   most significant source of emotional information is the face (Albert Mehrabian)

–   vocal cues

–   approximately 93% of emotional meaning is communicated nonverbally

Why Focus on Nonverbal Communication?

•      Nonverbal Messages Are Critical to Successful Relationships

•      Nonverbal Messages Serve Various Functions for Verbal Messages

–    substitute

–    complement

–    contradict

–    repeat

–    regulate

–    accent

The Nature of Nonverbal Communication

–    Culture-Bound

–    Ambiguous

–   perception checking

–    Continuous

–    Non-Linguistic

–    Multichanneled

Codes of Nonverbal Communication

–    Appearance

–   artifacts


Codes of Nonverbal Communication

–    Body Movement, Gestures, and Posture

–   Kinesics refers to the study of human movements, gestures, and posture

•   emblems

•   illustrators

•   affect displays

•   regulators

•   adaptors


Codes of Nonverbal Communication

–    Kinesics Research

–   quasi-courtship behavior-nonverbal actions we consciously and unconsciously exhibit when we are attracted to someone

•   courtship readiness

•   preening

•   positional cues

•   appeals to invitation

Codes of Nonverbal Communication

–    Eye Contact

–    Facial Expressions

–    Touch (Haptics)

–   touch ethic

–    The Voice

–   paralanguage or vocalics

–   back-channel cues

–   response latencies

Codes of Nonverbal Communication

–    Environment, Space, and Territory

–   physical environment

–   space (proxemics)

•   intimate space

•   personal space

•   social space

•   public space

Edwin T. Hall’s Zones of Space

Codes of Nonverbal Communication

–    Territory

–   territoriality

–   territorial markers

How to Interpret Nonverbal Cues

–    Immediacy

Immediacy Cues

Proximity:               Close, forward lean

Body Orientation:       Direct, could be side-by-side

Eye Contact:          Eye contact and mutual eye contact

Facial Expression:        Smiling

Gestures:               Head nods, movement

Posture:                  Open and relaxed, arms oriented                                 toward others

Touch:                     Cultural-and context-appropriate

Voice:                     Higher pitch, upward pitch

How to Interpret Nonverbal Cues

–    Immediacy


Chapter 5

Listening and Responding


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon




Communication Principles

Listening and Responding

–    The Principle of Listening and Responding

–    How We Listen

–    Listening Goals

–    Listening Barriers

–    Listening Skills

–    Responding Skills

–    Responding with Empathy

What You Do With Your Communication Time

How We Listen

–    Listening vs. Hearing

–    Selecting

–    Attending

–    Understanding

–    Remembering

–    Responding

Listening Goals

–    Enjoy

–    Learn

–    Evaluate

–    Empathize

Listening Barriers

–    Self Barriers

–   self focus

–   emotional noise

–   criticism

Listening Barriers

–    Information Processing Barriers

–   processing rate

–   information overload

–   receiver apprehension

Listening Barriers

–    Context Barriers

–   barriers of time and place

–   noise

Listening Skills

–    Stop: Turn Off Competing Messages

–   decentering

–    Look: Observe Nonverbal Cues

–    Listen: Understand Details and Ideas

–   identify your listening goal

–   mentally summarize the details

–   link message details with major idea

–   practice

–   transform barriers into goals

Responding Skills

–    Be Descriptive

–    Be Timely

–    Be Brief

–    Be Useful

Responding With Empathy

–    Passive vs. Active Listeners

–    Understand Your Partner’s Feelings

–    Ask Appropriate Questions

–    Paraphrase the Content

–    Paraphrase Emotions


Chapter 6

Adapting to Others: Bridging Culture and Gender Differences


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon





Communication Principles

Adapting to Others

–    Culture and Communication

–    Gender and Communication

–    Barriers to Bridging Differences and Adapting to Others

–    Adapting to Others Who Are Different From You

Culture and Communication

–    Culture is a learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms that is shared by a group of people.

–    Cultures are not static.

–    A Co-culture is a cultural group within a larger culture.

–   Amish

–   gender


Culture and Communication

•      Intercultural communication occurs when individuals or groups from different cultures communicate.

•      Culture shock refers to a sense of confusion, anxiety, stress, or loss that occurs when you encounter a culture that has little in common with your own.

•      Our culture and life experiences determine our world view--the general perspective that determines how we perceive what happens to us.

Cultural Contexts

–    People from different cultures respond to their surroundings or cultural context cues in different ways.

–    High-Context Cultures

–   nonverbal cues are extremely important

–   communicators rely on the context

–    Low-Context Cultures

–   rely more explicitly on language

–   use fewer contextual cues to interpret information

Cultural Values

–    Masculine and Feminine Perspectives

–    Avoidance or Tolerance of Uncertainty

–    Distribution of Power

–    Individualism or Collectivism

Cultural Values: Masculine/Feminine

–    Masculine

–   emphasize getting things done and being assertive

–   tend to value traditional roles for men and women

–   not a reflection of biological sex

–    Feminine

–   emphasize building relationships and seeking peace and harmony with others

Cultural Values: Uncertainty and Certainty

–    Avoidance of Uncertainty

–   like to know what will happen next

–   develop and enforce rigid rules for behavior and establish more elaborate codes of conduct

–    Tolerance for Ambiguity

–   tend to be comfortable with uncertainty

–   relaxed, informal expectations from others



Cultural Values:Approaches to Power

–    Decentralized Approach

–   leadership is not vested in one person, power is decentralized

–   decisions are likely to be made by consensus

–    Centralized Approach

–   militaristic approach to power

–   prefer strongly organized, centrally controlled form of government

Cultural Values: Individualism and Collectivism

–    Collectivistic Cultures

–   champion what people do together and reward group achievement

–   strive to accomplish goals for the benefit of the group

–    Individualistic Cultures

–   individual recognition

–   self-realization

–   tend to be loosely knit socially



Gender and Communication

–    Sex-Based Expectations

–   start at birth

–   gender roles are transmitted via communication

–    Why and How Women and Men Communicate

–   instrumental and expressive orientations

–   content and relational dimensions of messages

Barriers to Bridging Differences

–    Assuming Superiority

–   ethnocentrism

–    Assuming Similarity

–    Stereotyping and Prejudice

–   stereotyping involves pushing others into inflexible, all-encompassing categories

–   prejudice is a judgment some has made based on the assumption that we already know all of the information we need to know about a person

–    Different Communication Codes

Adapting to Others

•      Seek Information

•      Listen and Ask Questions

•      Tolerate Ambiguity

•      Develop Mindfulness

–    engage in self-talk

•      Become Other-Oriented

–    other-oriented communication

–    social decentering

–    empathy and sympathy

•      Adapt To Others








Chapter 7

Understanding Interpersonal Communication in Relationships


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon





Communication Principles

Understanding Interpersonal Communication

–    What Is Interpersonal Communication?

–    Stages of Relationship Development

–    Initiating Relationships

What Is Interpersonal Communication?

–    Interpersonal communication is a special form of unmediated human communication that occurs when we interact simultaneously with another person and attempt to mutually influence each other, usually for the purpose of managing relationships.

What Is Interpersonal Communication?

–    IPC involves quality.

–   impersonal communication

–    IPC involves simultaneous interaction between individuals.

–    IPC involves mutual influence between individuals.

–    IPC is the fundamental means we use to manage our relationships.


Interpersonal Relationships

–    IP Relationships Defined

–   connections with other people as a result of IPC

–    Circumstance

–   our lives overlap with others’

–    Choice

–   seek out and intentionally develop relationships

Stages of Interpersonal Relationships

–    Relational Development Proceeds in Discernable Stages

–    IPC is Affected by the Stage of the Relationship

–    IPC Facilitates Movement Between the Various Stages


Elevator Model

Relational Escalation

–    Pre-Interaction Awareness

–    Initiation

–    Exploration

–    Intensification

–    Intimacy


Relational De-Escalation

–    Turmoil or Stagnation

–    De-Intensification

–    Individualization

–    Separation

–    Post-Interaction


Initiating Relationships

–    Interpersonal Attraction Defined

–   degree to which you desire to form or maintain an IP relationship

–    Short-Term Initial Attraction

–   potential for development

–    Long-Term Maintenance Attraction

–   sustains relationships


Elements of IP Attraction

–    Similarity

–    Physical and Sexual Attraction

–    Proximity

–    Complementarity

–   inclusion

–   control

–   affection


Communicating Our Attraction

–    Direct and Indirect Strategies

–   immediacy

–    Verbal and Nonverbal Cues

Getting That First Conversation Going

•      Reducing Uncertainty

–   uncertainty reduction theory

–   passive, active, interactive strategies

•      What Do You Say First?

•      The Art and Skill of Asking Great Questions

–   conversational narcissism/self-absorbed communicator style

•      The Art and Skill of Giving and Receiving Compliments


Chapter 8

Enhancing Interpersonal Relationships


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon





Communication Principles

Enhancing Relationships

–    The Importance of Friendship

–    The Importance of Family

–    The Importance of Colleagues

–    Maintaining Relationships Through Interpersonal Communication

–    Managing Conflict

The Importance of Friendship

–    Friendship Over the Years

–   childhood

–   adolescent

•   peer relationships are the most important social influence on our behavior

–   adult

–   elderly and friendships

Enhancing Friendships

–    Awareness of Yourself

–    We Use Communication To Initiate, Develop, Deepen And Maintain Friendships

–    Listening And Responding Are Critical

–    Learn To Adapt

The Importance of Family

–    Changing Nature of Family

–    Enhancing Family Relationships

–   discover who we are in families

–   earliest lessons about verbal and nonverbal communication

–   family relationships are built upon trust

–   family relationships involve adaptation

The Importance of Colleagues

–    On the Job Communication

–   communication skills are highly valued

–    Enhancing Workplace Relationships

–   uncertainty reduction

–   verbal and nonverbal communication skills

–   listening and responding

–   adaptation is critical to successful coworker relationships

Maintaining Relationships Through IPC

–    Self-Disclosure Defined

–   we voluntarily provide information to others that they would not learn if we did not tell them

–    Reciprocity in Self-Disclosure

–   we expect others to share similar information

–    Appropriateness in Self-Disclosure

–    Assessing the Risks of Self-Disclosure

–    Self-Disclosure, Intimacy, and Gender

Models of Self-Disclosure

–    Social Penetration

–   developed by Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor

–   illustrates how much and what kind of information we reveal in various stages of relationships

–   circles represent breadth and depth of penetration

–   each relationship represents a degree of social penetration

Models of Self-Disclosure

The Social Penetration Model

Models of Self-Disclosure

–    Johari Window

–   reflects various stages of relational development, degrees of self-awareness, and others’ perceptions of us

–   square window represents yourself

–   the self encompasses everything about you, including things you don’t realize

Models of Self-Disclosure

The Johari Window Model

Models of Self-Disclosure

The Johari Window Model

Models of Self-Disclosure

The Johari Window Model

Models of Self-Disclosure

The Johari Window Model

Models of Self-Disclosure

The Johari Window Model

Managing Conflict

IP conflict is a struggle that occurs when two people cannot agree on a way to meet their needs.

Conflict Principles

–    Conflict Is Normal

–    Constructive Conflict

–   construct something new

–   suggest areas of change

–   revitalize the relationship

–    Destructive Conflict

–   dismantles relationships

–   lack of flexibility is the hallmark

Power and Conflict

–    Interpersonal power means the ability to influence another in the direction we desire.

–    Power and Relationships

–   complementary

–   symmetrical

–   parallel

Assertive Versus Aggressive Communication

–    Assertive communication takes the listener’s feelings and rights into account; aggressive communication does not.

–    To assert yourself is to let your communication partner know that his or her behavior is infringing on your rights.

Conflict Management Styles

–    Nonconfrontational

–  placating

–  distracting

–  computing

–  withdrawing

–  giving in

Conflict Management Styles

–    Confrontational

–  control

–  win/lose philosophy

–    Cooperative

–  conflict is not a game

–  conflict is a set of problems to be solved


Conflict Management Skills

–    Manage Your Emotions

–    Manage Information

–    Manage Goals

–    Manage the Problem








Chapter 9

Understanding Group and Team Communication


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon




Communication Principles

Understanding Group and Team Communication

–    Groups and Teams Defined

–    Types of Groups and Teams

–    Group and Team Dynamics

–    Group and Team Phases of Development

–    Diversity in Groups and Teams: Adapting to Differences


Groups and Teams Defined

–    Communicating In Small Groups

–   consists of a small number of people

–   common purpose

–   sense of belonging

–   members exert influence on others in the group

–    Small group communication is the transactive process of creating meaning among 3 to 15 people who share a common purpose, who feel a sense of belonging, and who exert influence on each other.

Groups and Teams Defined

–    Communicating In Teams

–   A team is a coordinated group of people organized to work together to achieve a specific, common goal.

Groups and Teams Defined

–    Distinctions Between Groups and Teams

–   Teams develop clearly defined responsibilities for team members.

–   Teams have clearly defined rules for team operation.

–   Teams develop clear goals.

–   Teams develop a way of coordinating their efforts.

Understanding Types of Groups and Teams

–    Primary Groups

–   exist to fulfill the basic human need of associating with others

–    Study Groups

–   meet to learn new ideas

–    Therapy Groups

–   exist to provide treatment for the personal problems that group members may have

Understanding Types of Groups and Teams

–    Problem Solving Groups

–   exist to resolve an issue or overcome an unsatisfactory situation or obstacle to achieve a goal

–    Focus Groups

–   small groups of people who are asked to discuss a particular topic or issue

–    Social Groups

–   exist just for the joy of socializing with others

Understanding Group and Team Dynamics

–    Roles

–   consistent ways you communicate with others in a group

–    Types of Roles

–   task

–   social

–   individual

Understanding Group and Team Dynamics

–    Norms

–   standards that determine what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a group

–    Status

–   an individual’s importance and prestige

Understanding Group and Team Dynamics

–    Power

–   the ability to influence others’ behavior

–    Types of Power

–   legitimate (respect for position)

–   referent (based on attraction)

–   expert (influence from a person’s knowledge)

–   reward (ability to satisfy needs)

–   coercive (sanctions and punishment)

Understanding Group and Team Dynamics

–    Cohesiveness

–   degree of attraction that members of a group feel toward one another and the group

Understanding Group and Team Dynamics

Understanding Group and Team Dynamics

–    Communication Interaction Patterns

–   a pattern of communication that identifies the frequency of who talks to whom

–    Networks of Communication

–   all-channel

–   chain

–   wheel

Understanding Group and Team Dynamics

–    All-Channel Network

–   everyone talks to everyone else

Understanding Group and Team Dynamics

–    Chain Network

–   people convey a message through one person at a time

Understanding Group and Team Dynamics

–    Wheel Network

–   one person receives most of the messages

Understanding Group and Team Phases of Development

•      Orientation

–   primary tension

•      Conflict

–   secondary tension

•      Emergence

–   conflict is reduced

•      Reinforcement

–   group develops a sense of “we”

•      Process Nature of Group Phases

Understanding Diversity in Groups and Teams

–    Differences in Working Collectively or Individually

–   individualism and collectivism

–    Differences in the Use of Time

–   monochronic/polychronic

–    Differences in the Use of Personal Space

–   high-contact/low-contact


Chapter 10

Enhancing Group and Team Performance


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon





Communication Principles

Enhancing Group and Team Performance

–    What Effective Group Members Do

–    Structuring Group and Team Problem Solving

–    Enhancing Group and Team Leadership

–    Enhancing Group and Team Meetings

Research Regarding Group and Team Performance

•      Groups and teams come up with more creative solutions to problems than a person working alone.

•      Working with others in groups improves the comprehension of the ideas presented.

•      Group and team members are more satisfied with the conclusions and recommendations if they participated in the discussion.

•      Groups have more available information by tapping the experiences of group members.

Effective Group Members

–    Functional Approach

–   described the kinds of functions that lead to better quality solutions and decisions

–   vigilant thinkers pay attention to the process of how problems are solved

Effective Group Members

–    Identify A Clear, Elevating Goal

–    Gather and Use Information Effectively

–   identify the data

–   effectively communicate information

–   draw accurate conclusions

–    Develop Options

–    Evaluate Ideas

–    Develop Sensitivity Toward Others


Effective Group Members

–    Prescriptive Approach

–   offers a sequence of steps and techniques to help your group stay on task and remain productive

–   a structured problem is one in which there is a single-best solution

–   structure refers to the way a group discussion is organized

–   interaction refers to the give-and-take discussion

Groups Need a Balance of Structure and Interaction

Structuring Problem Solving

–    Step 1: Identify and Define the Problem

–    Step 2: Analyze the Problem

–   develop criteria

–   force field analysis technique

–    Step 3: Generate Possible Solutions

–   brainstorming

–   silent brainstorming

–   nominal group technique

Structuring Problem Solving

–    Step 4: Select the Best Solution

–   strategies to reach consensus

•   be goal oriented, listen, promote honest dialogue and discussion

–   be cautious of groupthink

•   encourage critical thinking

•   don’t agree with someone just because she or he is high status

•   consider asking a third party to evaluate the group

•   assign a devil’s advocate

•   break into dyads and consider pros and cons

Structuring Problem Solving

–    Step 5: Test and Implement the Solution

Enhancing Team Leadership

–    Leadership is the ability of a person to influence others.

–    Approaches To Leadership

–   trait

–   functional

–   styles

–   situational

–   transformational

Approaches To Leadership

–    Trait Approach

–   suggests that there are certain traits that make leaders

•   intelligence

•   confidence

•   social skills

•   administrative skill

•   physical energy

•   enthusiasm

Approaches To Leadership

–    Functional Approach

–   categorizes the essential leadership functions that need to be performed to enhance the workings of the group

–   task functions

•   behaviors that help the group get the work done

–   process functions

•   help maintain a harmonious group climate by encouraging amiable relationships

Approaches To Leadership

–    Styles Approach

–   authoritarian

•   influence by giving orders and controlling others

–   democratic

•   consults with the group before issuing edicts

–   laissez faire

•   takes a hands-off, laid back approach to influencing

Approaches To Leadership

–    Situational Approach

–   views leadership as an interactive process that links a particular style of leadership with various factors

–   Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model

•   relationship behavior

•   task behavior

•   maturity of group members

Approaches To Leadership

–    Transformational Approach

–   transformational leader influences by transforming the group by giving it new vision, energizing the culture, or giving the group new structure

–   Fundamental Skills of Transformational Leadership

•   build a shared vision

•   challenge existing ways of thinking

•   be a systems thinker

Enhancing Group Meetings

–    Manage Meeting Structure

–   Step 1: Determine Your Meeting Goals

–   Step 2: Identify What Needs to be Discussed to Achieve the Goal

–   Step 3: Organize the Agenda

•   an agenda is a list of the key issues, ideas, and information that will be discussed in the order of discussion

Enhancing Group Meetings

–    Manage Meeting Interaction

–   Facilitator needs to be a skill listener

–   Use metadiscussion

–   Use “I” messages rather than “You” messages

–   Be sensitive to the time the group spends on issues

–   Use prescriptive structures

Enhancing Group Meetings

–    Mosvic and Nelson’s Suggestions for Meeting Participants

–   Organize what you say

–   Speak to the point

–   Make one point at a time

–   Speak clearly and forcefully

–   Support your ideas with evidence

–   Listen








Chapter 11

Developing Your Speech


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon



Developing Your Speech

•      An Overview of the Public-Speaking Process

•      Understanding Speaker Anxiety

•      Managing Speaker Anxiety

•      Selecting and Narrowing Your Topic

•      Identifying Your Purpose

•      Developing Your Central Idea

•      Generating Main Ideas

•      Gathering Supporting Material

An Overview of Public Speaking

–    The Public-Speaking Process

–   select and narrow topic

–   identify your purpose

–   develop central idea

–   generate main ideas

–   gather supporting material

–   organize speech

–   rehearse speech

–   deliver speech

An Overview of Public Speaking

–    Audience-centered public speakers are inherently sensitive to the diversity of their audiences.

Understanding Speaking Anxiety

–    Speaker anxiety results from your brain signaling your body to help with a challenging task.

–   blood flow

–   breathing rate

–   adrenaline

–    Most speakers feel more nervous than they look.

Managing Speaking Anxiety

–    Know How To Prepare a Speech

–    Be Prepared

–    Focus On Your Audience

Managing Speaking Anxiety

–    Focus On Your Message

Managing Speaking Anxiety

–    Be Constructively Self-Aware

Managing Speaking Anxiety

–    Know How To Prepare a Speech

–    Be Prepared

–    Focus On Your Audience

–    Focus On Your Message

–    Be Constructively Self-Aware

Selecting and Narrowing Your Topic

–    Who is the audience?

–    What is the occasion?

–    What are my interests and experiences?

–    Brainstorming

–    Scanning Web Directories and Web Pages

–    Listening and Reading for Topic Ideas

Identifying Your Purpose

–    General Purpose

–   inform, persuade, entertain

–    Specific Purpose

–   concise statement of what your listeners should know or be able to do

•   At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to explain the causes and most successful treatments for anorexia and bulimia.

•   At the end of my speech, the audience will try Zen meditation.

Developing Your Central Idea

–    The central idea specifies the topic of the speech and makes some definitive statement about it.

–    Criteria for Central Ideas:

–   audience-centered

–   single topic

–   complete declarative sentence

–   specific language


Generating Main Ideas

–    Use the Central Idea To Generate Main Ideas:

–   Does the central idea have logical divisions?

–   Can you think of several reasons the central idea is true?

–   Can you support the central idea with a series of steps or chronological sequence?

Gathering Supporting Material

–    Supporting Material Can Be Verbal and Visual

–   verbal

•   illustrations, explanations, descriptions, definitions, statistics

–   visual

•   objects, charts, graphs, posters, maps, models

–   audio

•   music, CD-ROM, DVD

Sources of Supporting Material

–    You and People You Know

–    Internet

–   Criteria For Evaluating Internet Sources

•   accountability

•   accuracy

•   objectivity

•   date

•   usability

–    Library

Sources of Supporting Material

–    Books

–    Periodicals

–    Newspapers

–    Reference Resources

–    Government Documents

–    Special Services

Types of Supporting Material

–    Illustrations

–   hypothetical illustration

–    Descriptions and Explanations

–    Definitions

–   classification

–   operational definition

Types of Supporting Material

–    Illustrations

–    Descriptions and Explanations

–    Definitions

Types of Supporting Material

–    Illustrations

–    Descriptions and Explanations

–    Definitions

–    Analogies

–    Statistics


Chapter 12

Organizing and Outlining Your Speech


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon



Organizing and Outlining Your Speech

•      Organizing Your Main Ideas

•      Organizing Your Supporting Material

•      Organizing Your Speech for the Ears of Others

•      Introducing and Concluding Your Speech

•      Outlining Your Speech

Organizing Your Main Ideas

•      Strategies for Organizing the Main Ideas of the Speech

–    chronological

–    topical

–    spatial

–    cause and effect

–    problem and solution

Organizing Your Main Ideas

•      Chronological

–    sequential order, according to when each step or even occurred or should occur

•      Topical

–    organized by sub-topics, equal in importance

–    recency, primacy, complexity

•      Spatial

–    arranging items according to their location and direction

Organizing Your Main Ideas

•      Cause and Effect

–    identifying a situation and then discussing the resulting effects (cause/effect)

–    presenting a situation and then exploring its causes (effect/cause)

•      Problem and Solution

–    exploring how best to solve a problem or advocating a particular solution

Organizing Your Supporting Material

•      The same five organizational patterns you considered as you organized your main ideas can also help you organize your supporting material.

•      Specificity

–    group your specific information followed by general explanation or make general explanation first and then support it with specific information

•      Arrangement from “Soft” to “Hard” Evidence

Organizing Your Speech for the Ears of Others

•      Organizational Cues

–    signposts

–    previews

•    statement of what is to come

•    initial previews

•    internal previews

–    transitions

•    verbal and nonverbal

–    summaries

•    internal summaries

•    final summary

Introducing and Concluding Your Speech

•      Introduction

–    Get the audience’s attention

–    Introduce the topic

–    Give the audience a reason to listen

–    Establish your credibility

–    Preview your main ideas

Introducing and Concluding Your Speech

•      Conclusion

–    Summarize the speech

–    Reemphasize the main idea in a memorable way

–    Motivate the audience to respond

–    Provide closure

Outlining Your Speech

•      Preparation Outline

–    fairly detailed outline of central idea, main ideas, and supporting material

–    standard outline format

•      Delivery Outline

–    provides all the notes you will need to present your speech

Tips for Developing Your Delivery Outline

•      Use single words or short phrases.

•      Include your introduction and conclusion in abbreviated form.

•      Include supporting material and signposts.

•      Do not include your purpose statement.

•      Use standard outline form.


Chapter 13

Presenting Your Speech


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon



Presenting Your Speech

•      Methods of Speech Delivery

•      Effective Verbal Delivery

•      Effective Nonverbal Delivery

•      Effective Visual Aids

•      Final Tips for Rehearsing and Delivering Your Speech

Methods of Speech Delivery

•      Manuscript Speaking

–    Rarely done well enough to be interesting.

–    Guidelines

•    Type your speech in short, easy-to-scan phrases.

•    Use appropriate nonverbal messages.

•    Do not read the speech too quickly.

•    Vary the rhythm, inflections, and pace of your delivery.

•    Uses gestures and movement to add nonverbal interest.

Methods of Speech Delivery

•      Memorized Speaking

–    Guidelines

•    Do not deliver your memorized speech too rapidly.

•    Avoid patterns of vocal inflection that make the speech sound recited.

•    Uses gestures and movement to add interest and emphasis to your message.

Methods of Speech Delivery

•      Impromptu Speaking

–    “Off the cuff”

–    Guidelines

•    Consider your audience.

•    Be brief.

•    Organize.

•    Draw upon your personal experience and knowledge.

•    Use gestures and movement that arise naturally from what you are saying.

•    Be aware of the potential impact of your communication.

Methods of Speech Delivery

•      Extemporaneous Speaking

–    Method of delivery preferred by most audiences.

–    Guidelines

•    Use a full-content outline when you begin to rehearse your speech.

•    Prepare an abbreviated delivery outline and speaking notes.

•    Do not try to memorize your speech word for word.

•    As you deliver your speech, adapt it to your audience.

Methods of Speech Delivery

RECAP                  Methods of Speech Delivery


Manuscript           Reading a speech from written text.

Memorized           Giving a speech word for word from                              memory without using notes.

Impromptu           Delivering a speech without advance                     preparation.

Extemporaneous        Speaking from a written or memorized                             speech outline without have                                               memorized the exact wording of the                              speech.

Effective Verbal Delivery

•      Using Words Well

•      Crafting Memorable Word Structures

Using Words Well

•      Concrete Words

–    refers to an object or action in the most specific way possible

•      Unbiased Words

–    do not offend any sexual, racial, cultural, or religious group

•      Vivid Words

–    add color and interest to your language

•      Simple Words

–    immediately understandable

•      Correct Words

Crafting Memorable Word Structures

•      Figurative Language

–    metaphors (implied comparisons)

–    similes (over comparisons)

–    personification (attribution of human qualities to non-human things or ides)

Crafting Memorable Word Structures

•      Drama

–    omission (strip a phrase or sentence of nonessential words that the audience expects)

–    inversion (invert the usual subject-verb-object sentence pattern)

–    suspension (saving a key word or phrase for the end of a sentence)

Crafting Memorable Word Structures

•      Cadence

–    parallelism (two or more clauses have the same grammatical pattern)

–    antithesis (the two structures contrast)

–    repetition (repeat key word or phrase)

–    alliteration (repetition of an initial consonant sound several times in a phrase, clause, or sentence)

Effective Nonverbal Delivery

•      Physical Delivery

–    gestures

–    movement

–    posture

•      Eye Contact

•      Facial Expression

Effective Nonverbal Delivery

•      Vocal Delivery

–    volume

–    pitch

–    rate

–    articulation

•      Appearance

Effective Nonverbal Delivery

RECAP        Characteristics of Nonverbal Delivery

•       Gestures should be relaxed, definite, varied, and appropriate.

•       Movement should be purposeful.

•       Posture should feel natural and be appropriate to your topic, audience, and occasion.

•       Eye contact should be established before you say anything and sustained throughout your speech.

•       Facial expression should be alert, friendly, and appropriate.

•       Volume should be loud enough to be heard and varied.

•       Pitch should be varied to sustain audience interest.

•       Rate should be neither too fast nor too slow.

•       Articulation should be clear and distinct.

•       Appearance should conform to what the audience expects.


Effective Visual Aids

•      The term visual aid refers to any object that your audience can look at to help them understand your ideas.

•      Advantages

–    gain and maintain audience attention

–    communicate your organization of ideas

–    illustrate sequences of events or procedures

–    help your audience understand and remember your message

Types of Visual Aids

•      Objects

•      Models

•      People

•      Drawings

•      Photographs

•      Maps

•      Graphs

–    bar

–    pie

–    line

Types of Visual Aids

•      Charts

•      Videotapes

•      CD-ROMs and DVDs

•      Tapes and Audio CDs

Computer-Generated Visual Aids

•      Create and present professional-looking visual aids inexpensively and easily.

•      PowerPoint

•      Adapt to audiences that expect sophisticated technical support.

Guidelines for Preparing Visual Aids

•      Select the right visual aids.

–    adapt to your audience

–    be aware of your specific purpose

–    consider your own skill and experience

–    take into account the room in which you will speak

•      Make your visual aids easy to see.

•      Keep your visual aids simple.

•      Polish your visual aids.

Guidelines for Using Visual Aids

•      Rehearse with your visual aids.

•      Maintain eye contact with your audience, not your visual aids.

•      Explain your visual aids.

•      Time your visual aids to coincide with your discussion of them.

•      Do not pass objects, or other small items among your audience.

•      Use handouts effectively.

•      Use small children and animals with caution.

•      Use technology thoughtfully.

Final Tips for Delivering Your Speech

•      Finish your full-content outline several days before you must deliver the speech.

•      Practice, practice, practice.

•      Practice good delivery skills while rehearsing.

•      If possible, practice your speech for someone.

•      Tape record or videotape your speech.



Final Tips for Delivering Your Speech

•      Re-create the speaking situation in your final rehearsals.

•      Get plenty of rest the night before you speak.

•      Arrive early.

•      Review and apply the suggestions in Chapter 11 for becoming a more confident speaker.

•      After you have delivered your speech, seek feedback from members of your audience.



Chapter 14

Informing Others


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon



Speaking to Inform

•      Types of Informative Speaking

•      Strategies for Making Your Informative Speech Clear

•      Strategies for Making Your Informative Speech Interesting

•      Strategies for Making Your Informative Speech Memorable

Speaking to Inform

•      The purpose of a speech to inform is to share information with others to enhance their knowledge or understanding of the information.

•      When you inform someone, You assume the role of a teacher by defining, illustrating, clarifying, or elaborating on the topic.

Types of Informative Speeches

•      Speeches About Objects

•      Speeches About Procedures

•      Speeches About People

•      Speeches About Events

•      Speeches About Ideas

Strategies for Making Your Informative Speech Clear

•      A message is clear when it is understood by the listener in the way the speaker intended.

–    be aware of what you intend to communicate

–    select appropriate words that are reinforced with appropriate nonverbal cues

–    adapt your message to your audience

Strategies for Making Your Informative Speech Clear

•      Use Simple Ideas Rather Than Complex Ones

•      Pace Your Information Flow

•      Relate New Information to Old

–    analogy

Strategies for Making Your Informative Speech Interesting

•      Adult Learner Preferences

–    To be given information they can use immediately

–    To be actively involved in the learning process

–    To connect their life experiences with the new information they learn

–    To know how the new information is relevant to their busy lives

–    To receive information that is relevant to their needs

Strategies for Making Your Informative Speech Interesting

•      Present Information that Relates to Your Listener’s Interests

•      Use Effective Supporting Material

•      Use Words Well

–    word pictures

•      Create Interesting Visual Aids

Strategies for Making Your Informative Speech Memorable

•      Establish a Motive for Your Audience to Listen to You

•      Build In Redundancy

•      Reinforce Key Ideas Verbally

•      Reinforce Key Ideas Nonverbally

Strategies for Informative Speaking


Chapter 15

Persuading Others


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon



Persuading Others

•      Persuasion Defined

•      Motivating Your Audience

•      Selecting and Narrowing Your Persuasive Speech Topic

•      Organizing Your Persuasive Messages

•      Strategies for Persuading Your Audience

•      How to Adjust Ideas to People and People to Ideas

Persuasion Defined

•      Persuasion is the process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior.

•      The persuasive speaker invites the listener to make a choice, rather than just offering information about the options.

•      The persuasive speaker asks the audience to respond thoughtfully to the information presented.

•      The persuasive speaker intentionally tries to change or reinforce the listeners’ feelings, ideas, or behavior

Motivating Your Audience

•      Motivating with Dissonance

–    cognitive dissonance occurs when you are presented with information that is inconsistent with your current thinking or feelings

•      Motivating with Needs

–    Maslow’s Hierarchy

Motivating Your Audience

•      Motivating with Fear Appeals

–    threat to family members

–    credibility of speaker

–    perceived “realness” of the threat

•      Motivating with Positive Appeals

–    promising that good things will happen if the speaker’s advice is followed

Selecting and Narrowing Your Persuasive Speech Topic

–    Who is the audience?

–    What is the occasion?

–    What are my interests and experiences?

–    Brainstorming

–    Scanning Web Directories and Web Pages

–    Listening and Reading for Topic Ideas

Identifying Your Persuasive Speech Purpose

–    General Purpose

–   persuade

–    Specific Purpose

–   attitude (learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably)

–   belief (sense of what is true or false)

–   value (enduring conception of right or wrong)

Developing Your Central Idea as a Persuasive Proposition

–    A proposition is a statement with which the speaker wants their audience to agree.

–    Proposition of Fact

–   true/false

–    Proposition of Value

–   judge worth or importance of something

–    Proposition of Policy

–   advocates specific action, includes should

Organizing Your Persuasive Messages

–    Problem and Solution

–    Cause and Effect

–    Refutation

–   an organizational strategy by which you identify objections to your proposition and refute them with arguments and evidence

Organizing Your Persuasive Messages

–    Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

–   attention

–   need

–   satisfaction

–   visualization (positive and negative)

–   action


Strategies for Persuading Your Audience

–    Establish Your Credibility

–   an audience’s perception of a speaker’s competence, trustworthiness, dynamism

–   charisma

–   initial, derived, terminal


Strategies for Persuading Your Audience

–    Using Evidence and Reasoning

–   proof consists of both evidence and the conclusions you draw (reasoning)

–   inductive reasoning

•   arrives at a general conclusion from specific instances

•   reasoning by analogy

–   deductive reasoning

•   reasoning from a general statement to reach a specific conclusion

Strategies for Persuading Your Audience

–    Using Evidence and Reasoning

–   causal reasoning

•   relate two or more events in such a way as to conclude that one or more of the events caused the others

Logical Fallacies

–    Causal Fallacy

–    Bandwagon Fallacy

–    Either-Or Fallacy

–    Hasty Generalization

–    Personal Attack

–    Red Herring

–    Appeal to Misplaced Authority

–    Non Sequitur

Strategies for Persuading Your Audience

–    Using Emotion

–   emotion-arousing verbal messages

–   concrete illustrations and descriptions

–   nonverbal messages

How to Adjust Ideas to People and People to Ideas

–    The Receptive Audience

–   identify with your audience

–   be overt in stating your speaking objective

–   use emotional appeals

–    The Neutral Audience

–   “hook” them with introduction

–   refer to universal beliefs and concerns

–   show how the topic affects them

–   be realistic

How to Adjust Ideas to People and People to Ideas

–    The Unreceptive Audience

–   don’t immediately announce your persuasive purpose

–   advance your strongest arguments first

–   acknowledge opposing points of view

–   be realistic








Appendix A



Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon




•      The Nature and Types of Interviews

•      How to Be Interviewed for a Job

•      How to Interview Others for a Job


An interview is a form of oral interaction structured to achieve a goal that often involves just two people, but could include more than two people, who take turns speaking and listening.

Types of Interviews

•      Information-Gathering Interview

–    designed to seek information

•      Information-Sharing Interview

–    one or both parties are seeking to gather or exchange information

•      Problem-Solving Interview

–    designed to resolve a problem

•      Persuasion Interview

–    one person seeks to change or reinforce the attitudes, values, or behavior of another person

•      Job Interview

–    goal is to assess credentials and skills for employment

How to be Interviewed for a Job

•      Be Aware of Your Skills and Abilities

•      Prepare Your Resume

–    a written, concise, organized description of your qualifications

–    components

•    personal information

•    career objective

•    education

•    experience

•    honors and special accomplishments

•    optional information

•    references

How to be Interviewed for a Job

•      Identify the Needs of Your Employer

•      Listen, Respond, and Ask Appropriate Questions

•      Follow Up After the Interview

How to Interview Others

•      Structure the Interview

–    beginning the interview

–    heart of the interview

–    closing the interview

•      Ask Appropriate Questions

–    open question

–    closed question

–    probing question

•      Listen and Observe Nonverbal Cues


Appendix B

Communication and Technology


Copyright © 2001 Allyn and Bacon



Communication and Technology

•      Technology and Interpersonal Communication

•      Technology and Group Communication

•      Technology and Public Communication

Technology and Interpersonal Communication

•      An Impersonal Technological Innovation

–    interactive voice response

–    chatterbot

–    cyberspace

•      The Role of Technology in Relationship Initiation

–    innovations

•    synchronous time

•    asynchronous time

•    newsgroup

•    listerv

•    electronic bulletin board

Technology and Interpersonal Communication

•      What makes virtual relationships attractive?

–    freedom from nonverbal communication

–    ability to edit the message

–    potential to stray beyond committed partners by making virtual connections

•      The Role of Technology in Relationship Maitenance

–    MUDs/MOOs

–    cyber-addicts

Technology and Group Communication

•      The Technological Formation of Small Groups

•      Teleconferencing

–    audio conferencing

–    video conferencing

–    computer conferencing

•      The Effects of Technology on Group Interaction

Technology and Public Communication

•      Source Material for Speeches

•      Organizing and Outlining a Speech

•      Technological Innovations and Audiovisual Aids

•      Technology and Enhanced Speech Delivery