Review #1 For Test 1
Fall 2004

Also see your text's site at:

DISCLAIMER With QUESTIONS...this site also includes student questions...there will be "bad questions" as well as "good questions."

Test 1 will cover: Chapters 1, 2, and 3. It will also cover the concepts covered in class.

(FYI: I am still editing this page...some questions are repeated in the student section)

Chapter 1
Key Terms and Questions to ponder for review

(notes link)

Chapter 2
Key Terms and Questions to ponder for review
(notes links) 

Chapter 3
Key Terms and Questions to ponder for review

(powerpoint notes links) and (powerpoint)

Heather, My Former Teaching Assistant, Suggests...

When studying for a test in Interpersonal Communications, here are some helpful hints to help you do well: 

---Make sure to have a good grasp on vocabulary used in the text, especially if mentioned multiple times in class 

---Review the main headings in the text, if it was something discussed extensively in class, re-read the section in the text 

---Skim through the Powerpoint notes discussed (and online) in class. Odds are, if they were put on those sheets, there is a large possibility of it returning on a test 

*** On line, there are review questions with answers and page numbers of the answers. After reviewing the information for a while, try to answer the questions on line. If something still seems a little hazy, then you know you need to review it again. Pay close attention to the questions on line, more often than not, you could see them again on the test (hint hint).**** 

*** Most tests offer the possibility to fill answer another essay question for extra-credit@BY ALL MEANS GO FOR IT!! They can't hurt you, but they sure can make a difference, sometimes even between two different letter grades!!!***

Past Student Authored Questions -- Take them "as is" :)

Our self esteem is developed?
a. during our childhood b. by our peers c. throughout our lives

answer d. Our self esteem is a continuous process.

What is the fundamental attribution error?
a. when we overestimate the internal causes, and underestimate the external causes.
b. when we overestimate the internal and external causes
c. when we underestimate someone's abilities.

Answer A. the fundamental attribution error distorts our perceptions of ourselves and others.

Today when the teacher asked Tommy what the lady in Kwik Trip looked like and was wearing that sold him his food he replied by saying, " I could not tell you, I was in and out so fast I didn't even pay attention". This is an example of what?
A. I-Thou relationship
B. I-You relationship
C. I-It relationship
D. Interactive Models

Correct Answer = C. The answer is I-It relationships because salespersons, servers, and clerical staff are often treated not as people but as instruments to take orders and be servants. I-It relationships are the most impersonal kind of relationships there are. I-You is the majority of our relationships such as friends. I-thou is the most personal kind of relationship. It is the highest form of human dialogue. I-It is the best answer for this question.

What is communication that explicitly tells us who we are by labeling us and our behaviors?
A. Direct Definition
B. Self-fulfilling Prophecy
C. Identity Scripts
D. Attachment Styles

Correct Answer = A. Direct Definition is the correct answer because it means that parents and other family members define us by how they describe us. Self-fulfilling prophecy is when we act in ways that bring about expectations or judgments about us. Identity scripts are the ways of living and identity. Finally, Attachment styles are parenting patterns that teach us who we are and how to approach relationships. Although all of them are quite similar direct definition is the correct answer for the question above.

What type of organization is a predictive generalization about individuals and situations based on the category into which we place them?

A. Prototype B. Stereotype C. Personal Construct D. Script

Cor rect Answer = B. Stereotype is how we look at and place people because of who they are and how they look. Personal Construct is bipolar, mental yardsticks we use to measure people and situations. Prototype is the most representative example of a category. Script is a guide to action in particular situations. The best answer for the question above is stereotype.

What are the two (2) levels of meaning in interpersonal communication?

Answer: first level is Content Meaning; the second level is Relationship Meaning.

Question: According to Maslow's theory the most abstract human need is? P)

A) Safety and protection B) Self esteem C) Self actualization D) Belonging needs E) Physical needs for survival

Answer: C, Maslow defined self actualization as the fully using and developing our unique "talents, capacities, potentialities". To achieve this we need to refine potentials that we have already to some degree, while also cultivating new potentials in ourselves.

Question: Perception involves three interrelated processes what are they? P

A) Self serving, personnel constructs, self serving bias B) Selecting, organizing, interpreting C) Age, culture, social roles D) Cognitive abilities, attribution error, ladder of abstraction.

Answer: B, Perception is an active process of creating meaning by selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations and activities, perception is an active process.

It is important for a person to feel involved and accepted by the people that they surround themselves by. Which of Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs does this pertain to?
A. Self Actualization Needs.
B. Physical Needs for Survival.
C. Belonging Needs.
D. Safety and Protection Needs.

Correct Answer: C, Belonging Needs. According to this need, all of us need to be happy, enjoy life, feel comfortable and enriched. Basically, we need to feel included.

Jennifer's father is an alcoholic. When she has breakfast with her father before school, he always tells her how much he loves her and how proud he is of her for all that she has done. However, when Jennifer returns home after school, her father is a completely different person. He tells her that she is worthless and will never go anywhere in life. The attachment style that he is portraying toward his daughter is:
A. the Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment Style
B. the Secure Attachment Style
C. the Fearful Attachment Style
D. the Dismissive Attachment Style

Correct Answer: A, Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment Style. This attachment style is best described by inconsistent treatment from the caregiver. Sometimes the person who cares for the child is loving and attentive, yet at other times they are the exact opposite, indifferent and rejecting.

According to Maslow's Hierarcy of Needs, which of the following must be taken care of first?

A.) Self Esteem Needs B.) Belonging Needs C.) Safety and Protection Needs D.) Physical Needs

Correct Answer is D. According to Maslow, we need to have our physical needs taken care of in order to then take care of the other, abstract needs.

Which of the following best describes that which consists of beliefs, values, understandings, practices and ways of interpreting experience that are shared by a number of people.

A.) Physiology B.) Standpoint Theory C.) Cognitive Complexity D.) Culture

Correct Answer is D.
Physiology is the functional
processes of the body. Standpoint Theory claims that a culture includes a number of social groups that offer particular material, symbolic and social conditiodistinctivelycitively shape the perceptions, identities and opportunities of members of those groups. Cognitive Complexity is a function of the number of constructs used, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to create perception.

Which level of communication would two people be if they treat each other as a unique person?

a. I-You b. I-It c. I-Thou

Answer: C, because this is the highest form of communication and it involves people knowing eachother on a personal level.

According to "reflected appraisal," what would Jenny think of herself if people said she was not smart?
a. She would laugh at them and tell them that they are not smart.
b. She would think that she was not smart.
c. She would think that she is smart.

Answer: B, because according to the text, reflected appraisal is the way in which we reflect the appraisals that others make of us.

All of the following are problems with mindreading except...
a. We have no way of checking on the accuracy of our perceptions.
b. We misinterpret others.
c. People tend to blow things out of proportion.

Answer: C, because you can mindread and think things are better than they really are.

What is the definition of I-You communication?

a. Accounts for the least amount of our interactions
b. People acknowledge one another as more than objects, but don't fully engage each other as unique individuals
c. Each person affirms the other as cherished and unique
d. Both a & b

Answer: B. found in Chapter 1 -- Explanation: I-You communication is like someone you get along with at work or school, but don't want to take it to an extreme personal level.

A _______ attachment style is cultivated when the care-giver in the first bond communicates in negative, rejecting, or even abusive ways to the child.

a. Secure attachment style b. Dismissive attachment style c. Fearful attachment style d. Anxious/Ambivalent attachment style

Answer: C. found in Chapter 2 --. Explanation: A child with fearful attachment style will think they are unworthy of love ant that others are not loving because their caregiver has either told them that or made them feel that way.

What type of organization is it when we use "mental yardsticks" to measure people and situations?

a. Personal constructs b. Prototypes c. Stereotypes d. Scripts

Answer: A. found in Chapter 3 -- Explanation: Personal constructs are when you think someone is attractive or unattractive or kind or unkind. When we size up a person we measure the person by personal constructs that we use to distinguish between people.

It's late at night and you are very tired, which influence of perception would this fall under?

a. Age b. Social Roles c. Cognitive abilities d. Physiology

The answer is d, physiology, because being tired could affect your thinking and senses.

When a girl in math class is told by her teacher over and over that she is stupid and she does begin to believe this is true and eventually does do poorly in the class, what is that called?

A.)Put down B.)Stereotype C.) Self-fulfilling prophecy

A.) (C) This is the correct answer because a self-fulfilling prophecy is a particularly powerful way communication shapes the self. The teacher telling the girl she is stupid helped her develop her self to being stupid, or in the least to do poorly in the class because she believed she was stupid.

Why is self-concept difficult to change?

a. it takes continuous effort
b. it is expensive to go to a counselor
c. the self resists change
d. both a and c
e. people usually do not want to change their self-concept

Answer: d. both a and c
Explanation: It is difficult to change self-concept for two reasons. First, doing so takes continuous effort. Because the self is a process, it cannot be changed in a moment of decision. The second reason it is difficult to change is that the self resists change. Most humans tend to want a positive self image, but find it difficult to change.

Which of the following are cognitive schemata that organize our thinking about people and situations?

a. prototypes b. personal constructs c. stereotypes d. scripts e. all of the above

Answer: e. all of the above Explanation: Prototypes are knowledge structures that define the clearest or most representative examples of some category. Personal constructs are â€*mental yardsticksâ€? we use to measure people and situations along bipolar dimensions of judgment. Stereotypes are predictive generalizations about people and situations. Scripts are guides to action based on our experiences and observations of interaction.

What is the definition of empathy?
a. When people communicate positively about us and reflect positive appraisals of our self-worth.
b. Comparing ourselves with others to form judgments of our own talents, abilities, qualities, and so forth.
c. An active process of creating meaning by selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations, and activities.
d. The ability to feel with another person, to feel what she or he feels in a situation.
e. Understanding both our own and another personâ€*s perspective, beliefs, thoughts, or feelings.

Answer: d. The ability to feel with another person, to feel what she or he feels in a situation.
Explanation: Answer a. â€*when people communicate positively about us and reflect positive appraisals of our self-worthâ€? is the definition of uppers.

Which of these is the correct order of Maslow's hierarchy of needs? (Most basic needs to higher needs)

A. Safety & Protection, Physical, Belonging, Self Esteem and Self Actualization
B. Physical needs, Safety and Protection, Belonging, Self Esteem and Self Actualization
C. Physical, Safety & Protection, Belonging, Self Actualization, and Self Esteem
D. Physical, Belonging, Safety & Protection, Self Esteem, Self Actualization

The correct answer is B. A, C and D are in the wrong order.

A _________________ is when caregivers are disinterested or rejecting. The individual begins to dismiss others as unworthy and view themselves positively.

A. Fearful attachment style B. Secure attachment style C. Dismissive attachment style D. Anxious/ambivalent attachment style

C is the correct answer.

You and you're friends decide to go out to a popular pizza place. You sit down at a table and the waiter asks you what you would like. After you have all placed your orders, the waiter takes the menus, and walks away. What type of communication did you and you're friends display towards the waiter at the pizza parlor?

a) I-you communication b) I-it communication c) I-thou communication

Answer: I-it communication because you and you're friends treated the waiter very impersonally, almost as objects. The waiter was just a person you had to communicate with because he was the guy that was taking your order and he was an instrument that took you're order and was to deliver you're food.

Stacy and Ken have been dating for almost six months. Stacy has noticed that Ken tends to drink heavily on occasions. One one occasion, they had gotten into an argument and Ken kicks her out of the apartment. The next day, Ken sends her flowers at work and tries to express his deepest apologies. He showers her with gifts and makes her dinner. She tells herself that it was her fault for nagging Ken about his drinking. She forgives him and takes him back. What type of attachment style does Stacy display in this situation?

A) secure attachment style B) fearful attachment style C) anxious/ambivalent attachment style D) dismissive attachment syle

Answer: anxious/ambivalent attachment style. Stacy thinks that it is her fault that Ken gets mad at her and kicks her out of the house. Since Ken's moods are so unpredictable due to his drinking, Stacy is confused and anxious at the same time and she believes the abuse was justifiable.

Ronnie is a senior in high school. He is an exceptionally good student in all his classes except for one, Math. He has a big exam the next day so his tries his hardest and studies. He feels good after taking the test and is pretty confident that he will get the best grade out of all his classmates. When he gets his test back, he is dismayed that he got a "C". He tries to tell himself that maybe he rushed through the test and didn't check his answers over or that since the teacher knew that he was brighter than all the other students, maybe the teacher graded him more harshly. A friend next to him received a "C-". Ronnie looked over him and thought to himself " He probably didn't even study, he's so dumb". What type of interpretation is Ronnie displaying towards himself and his friend?

A) prototype error B) standpoint theory C) self-serving bias D) implicit personality theory

Answer: self-serving bias. Ronnie is in favor of himself and when he realizes how poorly he did on the test, he justifies it by saying that he was to quick to try to zoom through it or that since his teacher knew he was a lot brighter, maybe he expected different answers from him instead. He then criticized the other boy harshly by saying that maybe he didn't even study or that he was just plain stupid. He is also guilty of the fundamental attribution error.Source.

The ability to adapt messages effectively to particular people. Which of the following does this definition refer to?

a. self-image. b. person-centeredness. c. self-sabotage. d. self-esteem.

Answer: b. is the correct answer because person centeredness is the ability to adapt messages effectively to particular people. P.45.

Which style of attachment is the most ideal?

a. fearful b. dismissive c. secure d. anxious/ambivalent

A. c, because a secure attachment is one where the caregiver is consistent with love and attention to the child and in return the child gains a positive self-image and a positive image of others.

Bob is unprepared for his presentation on Monday morning. He blames his wife for making him do projects around the house, and his children for distracting him. This would be an example of:

A) An Attachment StylesB) Interpretation C) Perceptual Influence D) a Personal Construct E) Fundamental Attribution Error

Answer: E) Fundamental Attribution Error

A self-serving bias means:
A. A person is prejudice
B. Beliefs, values, and understandings
C. Assuming we understand what another person thinks or perceives
D. To favor our self and our interests

Answer - D

More Samples By Chapter:

Chapter 1

Central to competent interpersonal communication is the ability to engage in dual perspective. In this quote what does the phrase dual perspective consist of?
a. Awareness of tendency to view things from own perspective, and resistance to the inclination.
b. Listening to others expression of thoughts and feelings to gain clues of items of meaning and how the individual feels.
c. Asking others to explain how they feel, what something means, how they view a situation.
d. All of the above.

Correct answer is d. All of the above. In the textbook three guidelines are given to improve dual perspective in individuals and also clarify what using dual perspective is.

Interpersonal communication is:
   A. a selective, systemic, unique, and ongoing process of  interaction between individuals who reflect and build personal knowledge of one another and create shared meanings.
   B. the foundation of personal identity and growth.
   C. involves only intimate contexts.
   D. all of the above.
   E. A and B.

*the correct answer is E.  "A" and "B" are both correct answers.  Whereas  answer "C" is clearly wrong.  Context does not distinguish interpersonal communication.  

Which of the following is most likely to be an example of an I-It Communication?
a)communication between two friends
b)teacher-student communication
c)communication with a telephone solicitor

Answer:  c In I-It communication, we do not acknowledge the humanity of other persons.   We don't have personal conversations in I-It communication.

In case you're wondering, this is Lori's Question:
Kevin wants to be accepted by a peer group in his kindergarten, so he tries to talk like the other kids in the group. Kevin's communication is an effort to meet
a. self-actualization needs
b. safety needs
c. self-esteem needs
d. belonging needs
e. survival needs

Answer: D Belonging needs because he is trying to be accepted and is acting like the other kids to do so. He wants to belong.

Scott and Rosie stopped banking at Norwest Bank because they were tired of being treated like a number. Clerks always asked for their account number...or referred to them by their account number. This is an example of which type of relationship:

1) I - Thou 2) I - It 3) I - You 4) Interpersonal

Answer: 2) According to Wood, in an I-It relationship, we treat others very impersonally, almost as objects.

True or False: You have just asked me, "Do you want to discuss this?" In response, I only sigh. Both of our messages are examples of verbal codes.

False: a sigh is a nonverbal code.

What is dual perspective?
a. understanding both our own and another person's perspectives beliefs, thoughts or feelings
b. understanding your own perspectives beliefs, thoughts or feelings
c. understanding others' perspectives beliefs, thoughts or feelings
d. exactly the same as empathy

Answer: a

The fact that communication is a process means that
a. what happens in dialogue is linked to past and future
b. communication changes over time
c. communication is irreversible
d. A and B
e. A, B, and C

Which one is not an I-it communication?
A. Treat others impersonally
B. We don't acknowledge the person as a human being
C. Being treated as a number
D. Highest form of human dialogue

answer > D The reason for this is because the highest form of human dialogue is I-Thou relationships that are very rare and hard to come by because it is to hard to openly reveal ourselves to others.

A father tells his son, "I don't care whether you like it or not, you are going to clean your room!" The content level of meaning in the father's communication says

a. the father has more power than his son
b. the father wants the room cleaned
c. the son has not cleaned his room in the past and his father has the authority to make him clean it!
d. the father is responsive to his son's interests

b is correct since the father only said clean it. The other meanings are inferences.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a symbol
a) their meaning is clear-cut and non ambiguous
b) they are not concrete or tangible
c) they are arbitrary
d) they are either verbal or nonverbal

An example of nonverbal communication is:
a.  telling someone that they look nice
b.  nodding your head when someone looks at you.

c.  when something tastes bad you say, “yuck!”

d.  using foul language toward others.

If  I think that I am going to spill on a white shirt and I do, I have:
a.  fulfilled a self-fulfilling prophecy
b.  ESP

c.  foresight

d.  spoken to  a psychic who told me I would

What causes a loss of information during a conversation between two people?
a. message b. destination c. noise d. sender

The answer is c. noise. Noise is anything that causes a loss of information as it flows from source to destination. Examples are, people walking by, the phone ringing, the listener moving hands around etc.

Chapter 2

In the magazine Cosmopolitan women are generally depicted as slender and young. What is this an example of?
a. Constructed social views
b. Differing social views
c. Social definitions of Generalized Other.
d. Changing social views

Correct answer is c. Social definitions. The textbook addresses social perspectives on the self are constructed and variable. Though answers a, b, and d could be possibly correct, answer is the most fulfilling answer because the Cosmopolitan is marketing on the assumption that women should be slender and young. This is a social definition.

Anxious/Resistant attachment style is:
a.  Promoted by caregivers who are disinterested, rejecting, or abusive toward children.
   b.  Cultivated when the caregiver in the first bond communicates in negative, rejecting, or even abusive ways to the child.
   c.  Fostered by inconsistent treatment from the caregiver.
   d.  When the caregiver responds in a loving way to the child.
The correct answer is C. A secure attachment style D.  A dismissive attachment style is letter A, and fearful attachment style is letter B. Reference:  pg. 52 and 53.

Which attachment style is one in which there is abuse, rejection, and neglect, but the child does not feel unloved?
a)secure a.s.
b)fearful a.s.
c)dismissive a.s.
d)anxious/restraint a.s.

Answer:  c Those who develop this style do not accept the caregiver's view of them as unlovable.  Instead, they dismiss others as unworthy. p. 52 in text

Amber always is negative towards Todd. She says he can't do anything right, that he'll never change, and she always points out his faults, never his strengths. Amber is Todd's:

1) Upper 2) Downer 3) Eagle 4) none of the above

Answer: 2) Wood says Downers are people who communicate negatively about us and our self worth.

"You are a very smart girl," Tammy tells her daughter. Tammy's statement is an example of

a. indirect definition b. direct definition c. identity script d. self-fulfilling prophecy e. downer

answer: b

The Generalized Other is
a. the views of our family of origin
b. the views of society as a whole
c. the views of our peers in school
d. a person with whom we have an I-It relationship
e. none of the above

An UPPER is...
a. purchased in an alley. b. a person who adds self worth.


Most psychologists believe that basic identity scripts are formed by age:
a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) 10

The correct answer is C. Most psychologists believe we have a large grasp on who we are and how we are supposed to life by age 5.

Danny isn't sure how smart he is until his teacher in first grade tells him she thinks he is very bright. Danny later tells his parents, "I am a bright boy." The process by which Danny developed a view of his intelligence is

a. indirect definition b. self-actualization c. script d. reflected appraisal e. social comparison

Fearful attachment style means?
A. When the caregiver responds in positive way like loving and caring.
B. When the caregiver responds in a negative way like abusive or rejecting

B, is the correct answer because in a fearful attachment the caregiver first bonds communicates in a negative and rejecting manner.

Identity scripts:
a. define our roles b. are rules for living c. are an unconscious process of internalization d. all the above


The term reflected appraisal refers to
a) comparing ourselves with others
b) judging others by their appearance
c) reflecting the appraisals others make of us
d) reflecting the appraisals of the media

A collection of rules, roles and attitudes endorsed by the whole social community in which we live.
a. reflected appraisal b. perspective of the generalized other c. ego boundaries

If you Have a Positive view of Yourself and Others, what Style of Attachment would that be called?
a. Anxious/Resistant Attachment b. A Fearful Attachment c. A Dismissive Attachment d. A Secure Attachment

Answer: A Secure Attachment 

"You're my little girl", is an example of:

a. Secure Attachment b.Style Identity Script c. Direct Definition d. Self-fulfilling Prophecy 

Answer: C. According to Wood, direct definition is communication that explicitly tells us who we are by labeling us and our behaviors. 

Chapter 3

A woman was born in Mexico and recently immigrated to America. You have known her for a short period of time and introduce her as your friend to some other acquaintances. The woman is embarrassed at this announcement because in Mexico friends are those who you have known closely for a period of time, not met recently. What influence of perception is this an example of?
a. Physiology b. Age c. Culture d.Cognitive abilities

The correct answer is c. Culture. The other answers don't have much to do with the woman's response to the situation. Her response was rooted in what she learned in Mexico, her culture.

Which of the following is a prototype?
a. your expectation of how a friend will behave
b. your idea about how you should interact with a friend
c. your best friend Maria who exemplifies an ideal friend to you
d. how a friend measures up on the dimension of intelligent-unintelligent
e. the dictionary definition of friend

As I walk in the room, I immediately focus my eyes on the bright yellow walls you have just painted. My immediately focusing upon the walls occurs in the __________ stage of perception:

a. Selection b. Organization c. Co-creation d. Interpretation

Answer: A, he or she is looking at the wall, this is selecting it.

Cops are all lazy, donut eating, power hungry people. This is an example of a:
1) Stereotype 2) Prejudice 3) Interpretation 4) Script

Answer: 1) In chapter three , Wood explains that stereotypes are predictive generalizations about people and situations.

Jed comes late to class and doesn't make any contributions during discussion. Based on what you know, which of the following is (are) inferences about Jed?
a. He was late getting to class.
b. He hadn't read the assignment, so he couldn't contribute.
c. Jed didn't contribute to class discussion.
d. Class began before Jed arrived.
e. Both B and C are inferences

Which of the following would be an example of a physiological factor that affects perception?

a. Mental distractions such as thinking about your date tonight!
b. A promiscuous orientation and lifestyle.
c. An economic class of "middle class."
d. A man who weighs ninety-seven pounds

D-- that is the only one that is body-related (or physiological)

Prototypes are...
a. highly flammable. b. the most respresentativel example of a thing. c. utilized by the armed forces.


When stereotyping someone, you:
a.  base your feelings about them from your own experiences
b.  talk to them and find out who they really are.

c.  approach them with an open mind

d.  ask others about that person to know more.

The tendency to evaluate the values, beliefs, and behaviors of your own culture as more positive, logical and natural than other ones is:
a.  racism b.  ethnocentrism c.  discrimination d.  receiving

The perception process has how many steps?
a.  1 b.  2 c.  3 d.  0

Samples of Lori's Old Multiple Choice Questions

Understand that these questions are just a sample of the type of questions I ask...each semester I stress different items, so I will clarify the content above on the review guide and in other words, if you see a topic we did not cover (and you paid close attention in class, don't worry, it is probably something we didn't cover!)

Questions Concerning the Definition of Communication and General Communication Theory --

1. I notice you looking at me and I blush, smile and then turn my head. According to the text I:

a. Transmitted a message through a verbal code.
b. Transmitted a message through a nonverbal code.

c. Did not engage in communication since I did not have control over these bodily reactions.

d. Was sending verbal and nonverbal messages.



a. Try again, if I sent a verbal code, I would be using words.

b. RIGHT! Nonverbal codes include all elements of communication that are not words, so this is a form of nonverbal communication; even if you did not intend to send the message, it is still considered communication.

c. Try again, communication includes unintentional messages.

d. Try again, no verbal messages were described here.

2. What is the definition of the transactional model of communication?

a. One person sends a message, waits for a response and then another person receives it.
b. Communicators simultaneously send and receive messages as co-participants.

c. Communication does not include feedback in the encoding/decoding process.

d. There are six people in every 2-person communication setting.



a. Try again, this is a description of the action model of communication.
b. Transaction is a simultaneous process where communicators are not seen as exclusively senders or receivers.

c. Try again, this is not true, we are constantly giving feedback whether or not we intend to.

d. Try again, this is Burdlund's "6 Persons Model"


3. You call me "cruel and vindictive." I tell you that you should take that back. You then smugly remind me that communication is a process. The fact that communication is a process means that:

a. Communication is reversible so I will decide when and what "I will take back."

b. Communication patterns rarely change so why bother.

c. What happens in dialogue is linked to past and future, so you can not "take it back."

d. Effective communication does not include an encoding process.


a. Try again, communication is not reversible.

b. Try again, patterns of communication do change!

c. You can never take back communication, all communication is linked to the past interactions we have had and will be connected to how we communicate in the future.

d. Try again, all communication is encoded and decoded, we are not always intentional in the process though.


. Katy understands that communication is constant, that it is difficult to determine who is the sender and who is the receiver. She knows that a good communicator realizes that we encode and decode at the same time. Katy's thoughts about communication demonstrate which theory of communication:
a. interaction
b. transaction c. action d. proaction


a. Try again, the interaction model is not a model that sees sender and receiver constantly encoding and decoding.

b. Transaction does see the sender and receiver constantly encoding and decoding.

c. Try again, the action model is not a model that sees sender and receiver constantly encoding and decoding.

d. Try again, this is not a communication model.


5. The pitch of one's voice, the batting of one's eyelashes, one's posture, and eye contact are all examples of ______ codes of communication.
  (Nonverbal) Feedback:
While verbal codes of communication are codes that follow grammatical structure, all other codes are considered nonverbal.

6. Words are ____________ codes.


(Verbal) Feedback:
Verbal codes are codes that follow grammatical structures.

. Which of the following is not a form of nonverbal communication?
a.  You're crossing your arms when talking to me.

b.  Use of the space in your room.

c.  Your new engagement ring on your left hand.

d.  Clearing your throat.

e.  A trucker saying, "10-4."

a.  This is nonverbal

b.  This is nonverbal

c.  This is nonverbal

d.  This is nonverbal

e.  Yes! This is verbal; it follows a grammatical structure.  It is a code used by a only a certain segment of the population, but a verbal code nonetheless.

. You have just asked me, "Do you want to discuss this?" In response, I only sigh. Both of our messages are examples of verbal codes.
a. True
b. False

Feedback::  Your words are examples of verbal communication; my sigh is nonverbal communication. Verbal codes are those codes of communication consisting only of words and word vocalizations.

Questions Concerning the "Self" 

Darren looks at himself and evaluates himself as unworthy of such a wonderful girlfriend as Patrice. His evaluation of himself falls under which term:
a. Self-awareness
b. Self-esteem c. Egocentrism d. Self-actualization

a. Self-awareness is being aware of who you are, knowing your talents and shortcomings.

b. Yes! Self-esteem is your judgment of yourself.

c. Egocentrism is a self-centered bias where you take as your own self as the starting point for your philosophical system.

d. Self-actualization is not correct.

One's self-image is based in part upon how others see you.
a. True b. False

a. We receive many different types of feedback from others which helps to form our self-image and self esteem.
b. Try again, we receive many different types of feedback from others which helps form our self-image and self esteem. See page 42 for more information.

A self-fulfilling prophecy predetermines how you will "turn out" as an adult.
a. True b. False

a. Think about the definite sound of "predetermine." Life changes daily! Predetermine is too strong of a word; influence is about as far as you can argue this point.
b. Correct! Life changes daily! Predetermine is too strong of a word; influence is about as far as you can argue this point.


Perception Questions:

1. You and I serve on a jury together. However, we see the actions of the accused very differently. I believe the accused acted in self-defense while you see it as calculated murder. Such differences in perceptions can be influenced by:

a. Present feelings and circumstances. b. Past experiences and roles. c. Culture and co-culture. d. Age e. All of the above.

a. While this is true, look more closely.

b. While this is true, look more closely.

c. While this is true, look more closely.

d. Present feelings and circumstances, past experiences and roles, culture and CO-culture and age all contribute to perceiving stimuli differently.

2. As I walk in the room, I immediately focus my eyes on the bright yellow walls you have just painted. My immediately focusing upon the walls occurs in the __________ stage of perception:

a. Selection b. Organization c. CO-creation d. Interpretation

a. Selection is this process of tuning into some stimuli while not attending to others.

b. Try again, organization is the second stage of perception.

c. Try again, CO-creation is not a step in the process of perception.

d. Try again, interpretation is the final stage of the process of perception.


3. I see a child alone by a busy street. I note her tattered clothes, disheveled appearance and dirty face and think to myself, "I have seen children like that before when I worked at the homeless shelter." After a moment, I finally say to my self, "Oh, she is a homeless child." When I draw a conclusion that she is homeless exemplifies the ________ stage of perception.

a. Interpretation. b. Organization. c. Selection d. Polarity.

a. The text explains that interpretation is this process of making a conclusion based upon what you have observed and organized.

b. Organization is merely determining what category she fits in, it is not the final conclusion.

c. Selection was just focusing on the child.

d. This is not a step in the perception process.


4. I finally signed a lease for my first apartment! My older sister asks me to describe my new neighborhood. I tell her that all I can remember is that there is a mall very close by. When we move my furnishings into the apartment a month later, my sister says, "Why didn't you tell me that you were by a park, a lake and even a coffee shop! This is wonderful!" I say, "This is new to me. Really, I never even noticed the park, lake or coffee shop. I only saw the mall!" My focusing on the mall and not seeing the park, lake or coffee shop demonstrates which of the following:

a. Selective retention
b. Selective attention

c. Selective interpretation

d. Selective organization

a. Selective retention is only remembering parts of a message. Since I never attended to these characteristics of the neighborhood, the answer could not be a.

b. Selective attention is defined as only attending to parts of the whole. Since I attended to the mall and not the lake, park or coffee shop, I "selectively attended to the mall."
c. Try again.

d. Try again.


5. Stephen runs to the store to purchase a bottle of liquid plumber since there is a plumbing emergency at home! He quickly goes into the store and hastily picks up his Liquid Plumber and hurriedly runs home. Later, Stephen's girlfriend, LaTisha says, "Why didn't you wait for me when I saw you in the store yesterday! I yelled your name three times!" Stephen says, "Sorry, I had only one thing on my mind. I did not even notice you." Stephen's failure to notice his girlfriend when he was focusing on the liquid plumber is an example of:

a. Selective retention
b. Selective attention

c. Selective interpretation

d. Selective organization

a. Selective retention is only remembering parts of a message. Since Stephen did not attend to his girlfriend, the answer can not be "a."

b. Selective attention is when you see only parts of the whole. Since he saw only the liquid plumber, this is an example of selective attention.

c. This is not part of selection.

d. This is not part of selection.


6. Which of the following would be an example of a physiological factor that affects perception?

a. Mental distractions such as thinking about your date tonight!
b. A promiscuous orientation and lifestyle.

c. An economic class of "middle class."

d. A man who weighs ninety-seven pounds

a. This is not physiological

b. This is not physiological

c. This is not physiological

d. These are a physiological, or bodily distinctions.

. When you remember how wonderful your last roommate was as a cook, but forget how she could not clean up after herself, you are exhibiting the perception concept called:

a. Selective Retention
b. Stereotyping

c. Self-fulfilling prophecy

d. Selective attention


a. You are remembering only parts of the past; this is selective retention.
b. You are not stereotyping, just remembering parts of the whole, try again.

c. You are not engaged in a self-fulfilling prophecy.

d. This is not a matter of only initially attending to his or her cooking style and not the messy lifestyle; it is a matter of remembering only part of the picture.


9.You see a young woman run into the store, grab a box of baby food and run out of the store without paying.  Which of the following statements is/are (an) observations?

a.  The woman is a mother.
b.  The woman did not pay for the baby food.

c.  The woman was desperate.

d.  The woman's child was hungry.

e.  All of the above are observations.

a.  We do not know this by reading this description, this is not an observation, and it is an inference.

b.  This is an observation, we did "see" this.

c.  We do not know this by reading this description, this is not an observation, and it is an inference.

d.  We do not know this by reading this description, this is not an observation, and it is an inference.


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